Ganoderma lucidum is a popular herbal medicine utilized in China to promote health. Modern research has disclosed the active ingredients of Ganoderma can exhibit a number of effects, including antitumor effects and immunomodulation. The present study evaluated the antitumor effects of self-prepared ganoderma lucidum spore oil softgel and spores oil, and investigated the possible underlying mechanisms by observing the results of the extracts and oil on topoisomerases and also the cell cycle. The outcomes indicated that Ganoderma extracts and spores oil presented dose-dependent inhibitory effects on tumor cells.
Ganoderma lucidum, also known as Ganoderma or Lingzhi, is one of most often used fungi in Chinese medicine. Modern pharmacological and clinical studies have confirmed that Ganoderma contains abundant biologically active substances in their fruiting body, mycelia and spores, and possesses variable functions, including immunomodulation, anti-aging, reducing blood lipids, anti-viral and anti-tumor activities (1-6). The current study examined the antitumor activity of a combination of aqueous and ethanol extracts from the Ganoderma fruiting body and Ganoderma spores oil, which had been taken from broken spores by supercritical CO2 extraction technology and explored the potential underlying mechanisms. DNA topoisomerases certainly are a class of enzymes involved in the regulating DNA supercoiling.
Topoisomerase overexpression has been connected to a number of human malignancies and is also the prospective for numerous chemotherapeutic agents (7). In case topoisomerases are blocked, the cell encounters problems during transcription of the DNA and through cell division. The widely-used antitumor drug, campothecin, blocks the relaxing action of class I topoisomerases and induces significant G1 cell cycle arrest (8). A previous study established that the active aspects of Ganoderma exhibited inhibition of topoisomerases (9). The present study examined whether Ganoderma extracts and spore oil affected the cell cycle and topoisomerases I and II.
Preparations of Ganoderma extracts and spores oil – Ganoderma extracts (GanoHerb™) and Ganoderma spores oil were provided by Fujian Xianzhilou Biological Technology and science Co., Ltd. (Fuzhou, China). Ganoderma extract, a brown powder, was dissolved in double distilled water to get ready solutions of varied concentrations, which were brown suspensions. Ganoderma spores oil had been a soft capsule with .5 g/.5 ml golden oil in each capsule. The stock solution of Coriolus Versicolor Extract were prepared using double distilled water that contained 6 µl/ml (v/v) Tween 80.
Recently, the result of Ganoderma on tumors continues to be increasingly studied. The current study said that Ganoderma extracts and spores oil inhibited the development of human leukemia cells (K562 and HL60) and human gastric carcinoma cells (SGC-7901) in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, Ganoderma extracts and spores significantly suppressed the expansion in the S180 and H22 transplant tumors in mice. Therefore, Ganoderma extracts and spores oil demonstrated definite antitumor effects inside the in vitro vrlzqn in vivo studies.
Since olden days, Ganoderma continues to be commonly used being a popular herbal medicine for that promotion of health (11). Numerous previous studies examined the immunomodulatory activities of Ganoderma (12,13). By detecting the immunity indexes of mice bearing S180 or H22 cells, Ganoderma extracts were concluded to possess a certain effect on improving immune function, while Ganoderma spores oil had no significant effect on the spleen or thymus indexes of mice. One of the main elements of Ganoderma extract is actually a polysaccharide that has been reported as immune function enhancer (12-15). Since there were few polysaccharides (water-soluble substances) inside the Ganoderma spores oil, the spores oil exhibited no evident impact on immunity. The current study also indicated that the antitumor results of Ganoderma might be safer in contrast to 5-FU, which led to the decreased weight and immunity indexes of mice (Tables I and ?andIIII).
To investigate the potential mechanism of ganoderma lucidum spore powder, the results of extracts and spores oil on topoisomerases and also the effect of spores oil on the cell cycle were examined.
DNA topoisomerases really are a class of enzymes working in the regulating DNA supercoiling. Type I topoisomerases change the level of supercoiling of DNA by causing single-strand breaks and religation, whereas type II topoisomerases cause double-strand breaks. Both of these activities are particularly crucial during DNA transcription and replication, once the DNA helix has to be unwound to allow proper function of large enzymatic machinery. Cancer chemotherapy uses this finding, using drugs that block topoisomerases to kill rapidly-dividing cancer cells. For instance, the widely-used anthracycline drugs, like doxorubicin and daunorubicin, attack class II topoisomerases and also the plant toxin, campothecin, blocks the relaxing action of class I topoisomerases.